In this article, we will discuss landforms and TYPES OF LANDFORMS. Firstly we have to knew about the what exactly is landforms. Secondly, we will discuss Major land features.
A landform is just a natural geographic feature that can be found on the earth’s surface, such as valleys, hills, mountains and plateau.
As you know Earth fourth surface is covered by land. The part which forms land on earth’s surface is not the same all over. At some places, the land may be too high, at some places very low, some areas would be rich green and some areas are very dry and barren. Our earth has a beautiful combination of different physical features. Collectively, landforms make up a specific piece of land and their physical grouping in the landscape forms that is termed as topography. The physical features of landforms consider slope, elevation, rock revelation, stratification and rock type. (Get info about what is landform)
The different naturally occurring physical features of the earth’s crust are regarded as landforms. They include mountain, plateau, plains, desert, seas, canyons, etc.
Scientists who study landforms and how they are created, collectively their relation with other natural things are called geologists.
Formation of Landforms
Landforms are created by two main processes:
- Constructive Processes
- Destructive Processes
1. Constructive Processes that create landforms through tectonic and depositional processes.
They are liable for physically structure or construct certain landforms. They exclude tectonic and depositional processes and their landforms.Tectonic Landforms are build by massive earth movements due to tectonic and volcanic activity, and exclude landforms such as: rift valleys,intrusive igneous volcanoes and mountains landforms.
2. Destructive Processes that destroy landforms through weathering, erosion, and mass wasting. Depositional landforms exclude features such as: deltas,alluvial fans, flood plains,beaches, dunes, and glacial moraines.The Stromboli Volcano erupting off the coast of Sicily in the Mediterranean Sea.Floodplain deposits at the geographical point of Mississippi and Arkansas Rivers.
TYPES OF LANDFORMS
- Plains: Coastal plain and Inland plain
- Cape/ peninsula
- Continental Shelf
- Sand dune
The most important form of land is mountains. They are formed where the Earth’s crust facing folding or faulting, like the Canadian Rockies and the Alps.
Fault-block mountains are build when the crust of earth fractured and was move upward. Such mountain is found in the Sierra Nevada Range. Volcanic mountains build when hot magma break earth’s crust and appear on the surface of the earth. Volcanism can build islands like Hawaii. On the land of the earth, some volcanic mountains come out that is totally isolated. Like Mount Rainier in Washington State.
Earth’s surface mostly part belong to low and high plains, which exclude prairies, grasslands and steppes. The Low plain mostly has sediments deposits due to its low elevation. The high plains ( 600 meters) are more likely affected by wind erosion. It includes the Atlantic Coastal Plain, Gulf Coastal Plain, the Great Plains of the United States and Africa.
There are different types of plains:
- Coastal Plains – The plains that are near the ocean bodies called coastal plains. In India, we have the Eastern Coastal Plains and the Western Coastal Plains.
- Inland Plain – The plain that are far away from the coastal areas called Inland plains. It generally found at high altitudes. The Great Plains in the United States is the best example of Inland plain.
- Flood Plain – A plain bordering a river and subject to flooding occasionally and periodic.
- River Plain – The plain that is formed by the action of rivers, these are called river plains. In India, the Northern Gangetic Plain is a river plain.
Plateaus are fairly flat areas high than the land close to it. The neighbouring areas have very steep slopes.Such as Tibet are situated between mountain ranges.
Plateaus covering broad land areas and collectively with their enclosed basins they are covering about 45% of the whole earth’s land surface.
Plateaus are build when magma move up towards the surface of the earth’s crust. This magma does not occur through it but rise a object of the crust up creating a plateau.
There are definite types of plateaus such as the butte and the mesa. These are specific kinds of plateau.
Columbia Plateau of the United States and Deccan of India are basaltic and build because of lava flows spreading to thousands of square kilometers or move up the fairly flat land surfaces.
Hills are elevated region on the earth surface with typical height, but it will not as high as mountains. Hills are build as a result of collection of rock debris or sand deposit by wind or glaciers. They can be also build through faulting when the faulting go slightly up. Hills are mostly existing in low mountain valleys or plains.
The Black Hills are the most known example of it. Deep erosion of areas formerly lifted by the earth’s crust activity. It transfer most of the soil away going behind a hill. Human activity also build hill when soils is dug and heaped large masses. Volcanic eruptions as well make hills after the volcanic eruption when the melted physical or lava chill and harden in a accumulation.
A valley is a lowland area that is surround by high grounds, such as mountains and hills. A valley is the area at the bottom of two mountains, but they can also run for many miles. Valleys can have water or sometime may be dry. They can be U-shape or V-shape in design.
The Finger Lakes in New York State is form due to glaciers. Like Canyons and V-shape valleys are settle due to the motion of running water.
A desert is just an dry land with little or no rainfall. It is famous that about a third of the earth’s land are build up of deserts. Some natural characteristic found on deserts exclude rock pedestals, desert pavements, and sand dunes.Deserts constitute approximately 20% of the earth’s total land cover.
The deserts are divide into four major class exclude the Semi-Arid Deserts, the Hot and Dry Deserts, the Cold Deserts, and the Coastal Deserts.
The outstanding lineament of a canyon are very steep cliffs with deep valleys running through them. They are build where rocks are layers horizontally and are connect with rocks that do not have regular resistance to erosion.
According to Wikipedia:
The Cape Peninsula is a mostly rocky peninsula that juts out into the Atlantic Ocean at the south-western member of the African continent. In the southern end of the peninsula are Cape Point and most important the Cape of Good Hope. On the northern end is Table Mountain, overlooking Cape Town, South Africa. The peninsula is 52 km long from Mouille point in the north to Cape Point in the south.
SO these are some Landforms of the World and Types of Landforms with Example of landforms. In this article, we firstly discuss Landforms Definition and exactly Landforms meaning. This is also best for Landforms for Kids and 10 examples of landforms with major types of landforms and landforms pictures. We discuss Mountains, Types of mountains, how mountains formed and some Facts about Mountains. Hill and mountain Vs Hill, Desert , Facts about desert, Valleys definition and facts about it and so on.
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